Termos e Definições - C

Converter/interpreter (C/I)
Converter/interpreter (C/I) service is the JES3 function that converts JCL statements to internal text and then to control blocks. This JES3 service comprises the pre-scan processing routine, converter/interpreter dynamic support programs (C/I DSPs), the POSTSCAN DSPs, and the initiator support routines.
If CI down jobs do not get run.

Command Class
- Class M1 commands run in the *MASTER* address space and may be
essential to clearing the backlog of other commands.
- Class M2 commands are ordinary attached commands which run in the
*MASTER* address space.
- Class C1 commands run in the CONSOLE address space and may be
essential to clearing a backlog of other commands.
- Class C2 commands are ordinary attached commands which run in the
CONSOLE address space.

A warning message has already been issued, and the system deletes it now. Processing continues. Additional commands are held in "waiting for execution" status, and will be executed as current commands finish.

Coupling Facility
In IBM mainframe computers, a Coupling Facility or CF is a piece of computer hardware which allows multiple processors to access the same data.

A Parallel Sysplex relies on one or more Coupling Facilities (CFs). A coupling facility is a mainframe processor, with memory and special channels (CF Links), and an operating system primitive called Coupling Facility Control Code (CFCC). It has no I/O devices, other than the CF links. The information in the CF resides in memory and a CF typically has a large memory. In principle, any IBM mainframe can serve as a coupling facility. The CF runs no application software.

Supported by CFs, a Sysplex cluster scales very well up to several hundreds of CPUs running transaction and data base applications. Using the CF links, data can be directly exchanged between the CF memory and the memory of the attached systems, using a direct memory access like mechanism, without interterrupting a running program. Systems in a Sysplex cluster store CF information in local memory in an area called a bit vector. This enables them to locally query critical state information of other systems in the Sysplex without the need for interrogation. The System z Architecture includes 18 special machine instructions and additional hardware features supporting CF operation.

Coupling Facility Structures
A CF is used for three purposes:

Locking information that is shared among all attached systems
Cache information (such as for a data base) that is shared among all attached systems
Data list information that is shared among all attached systems
These three purposes are catered for by three types of structure:

List (and the variant Serialised List)
A structure is a portion of CF memory. It is said to be connected to by specific CF-exploiting applications on the coupled z/OS systems. A typical Parallel Sysplex contains several structures of each type. Each software exploiter may use several structures of each type. For example each DB2 Data Sharing Group uses one Lock structure, one List structure and several cache structures (one for each Group Buffer Pool (GBP)).

Structure Duplexing
Structures may be duplexed across different CFs, allowing two copies of the same structure to be kept synchronised. Duplexing is often used as part of an installation's drive to remove single points of failure, with the aim of reducing the incidence and duration of application outages. In the event of the failure of one CF, the other copy of the structure is used to satisfy all requests.

Coupling Facility Requests
A request to a CF structure is of one of two kinds:

Synchronous (sync) requests. When a z/OS system issues a request it waits for the request to complete, actively "spinning" on one of its own processors. Sync requests are quick but the response time is the same as the coupled system's "spinning" CPU loss.
Asynchronous (async) requests. When a z/OS system issues a request it doesn't wait for the request to complete. Async requests are slower than sync requests (as they have a lower priority in the CF) but don't lead to the coupled system's processor "spinning".
Exploiting z/OS applications explicitly issue CF requests as synch or asynch.

Dynamic Request Conversion
In z/OS Release 2, the "Dynamic Request Conversion" function was introduced. This uses sampled response times to decide whether to convert Sync requests to Async or not. These decisions are based on such criteria as coupled processor speed.

CFs are unique to S/390, zSeries and System z mainframes. They are key to Parallel Sysplex technology.

Coupling Facility Levels and Exploiting Software Levels
The CFCC code is released as "Levels", usually denoted by their "CFLEVEL". For example, CFLEVEL 15 was announced in April 2007. Each level brings new function and sometimes improved performance. In most cases the new function or performance improvement requires a corequisite release of z/OS and perhaps new function in some subsystem (such as DB2). One such example is Coupling Facility Structure Duplexing. (Sometimes support from the operating system and subsystems is available via PTFs rather than a full release.)

General Comments:

Coupling Facility é um hardware que permite multi processadores acessarem o mesmo dado.
Coupling Facility é uma maquina que gerencia o XCF
a CF é uma maquina com processador, memoria e canais especiais
com um sistema primitivo, sistema operacional primitivo é CFCC - Coupling Facility Control Code.
Coupling Facility é uma maquina q controla o sysplex
Essa maquina CF gerencia todo o parallel sysplex
nela tem um codigo que gerencia lock, cache e data sharing, se tem um sistema acessando sem share ela coloca em lock por exemplo. Se é um arquivo compartilhado e que todos os sistema acessam ao mesmo tempo ela deixa na memoria como cache e gerenciar o data sharing é controlar tudo relacionado aos dados das lpares.
Basic sysplex utiliza CTC (channel to channel) e entao não esta ligado a maquina CF, o controle dos acessos é logico feito pelas lpares.

CFCC (Coupling Facility Control Code)
The operating system that runs on the coupling facility (CF) in an IBM Parallel Sysplex system. See CF.

A call center application and technology platform, originally developed by IBM and purchased by Genesys Telecommunications Laboratories, an Alcatel subsidiary, in 2001.

CATIA (Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application)
A computer-aided design and product life cycle management product from IBM and Dassault Systemes.

CGA (Color Graphics Adapter)
An early color video format for computer display monitors, introduced by IBM in 1981. CGA is limited to 16 colors and has a maximum resolution of 640x200.

CICS (Customer Information Control System)
IBM's online transaction processing (OLTP) platform. A general-purpose subsystem for implementing transaction-processing applications, CICS invokes customer-written application programs in response to transactions entered at client terminals, and provides the services needed by those applications to retrieve and update data in files and respond to the terminal that invoked them. See OLTP.

CISC (complex instruction set computer)
An processing architecture for mainframe computing, in which individual instructions may perform many operations and take many cycles to execute, in contrast to the reduced instruction set computer (RISC) architecture. Examples include IBM's S/370 and Hewlett-Packard's (originally Digital Equipment's) VAX. See RISC.

CMS (Conversational Monitor System)
A single-user, interactive operating system that was implemented for, and together with, IBM's Virtual Machine (VM) environment. See VM.

Component Broker
An IBM object request broker technology aimed at solving application integration issues. The product never fully matured and was used by only a handful of clients. It was eventually withdrawn from the market and replaced by WebSphere for z/OS.

CPI-C (Common Programming Interface for Communications)
A IBM communications technology that provides a high-level interface to Advanced Program-to-Program Communication (APPC). See APPC.

CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers)
The first major operating system for personal computers, introduced by Digital Research in the late 1970s. In 1981, it was largely supplanted by PC-DOS from IBM, licensed from Microsoft.

CUoD (Capacity Upgrade on Demand)
An option available on certain IBM systems that allows a customer to activate additional processor capacity when needed.

Evita que a controladora vá ao disco

Evita que a CPU vá à memória.

Evita que o VSAM vá à controladora

Cache Miss - dado solicitado não está na cache, sendo necessário lê-lo a partir do disco

Memória rápida dentro da CPU (L1)

Common area data space - contém os diretórios dos PDSEs abertos

Gaiola - Parte de um CEC. O CEC é dividido em cages

uma Controladora de I/O (ou mais raramente com outro canal). Canal não fala com o DAT. O canal não se comunica com a CPU, o seu interlocutor é o SAP. Localizam-se no cage
inferior A, também chamado IO cage.

ESCON. Enterprise Systems Connection. - (Vazão máxima de 17MB/S) Envia um bloco sincronamente para a controladora depois de ter recebido a resposta (acknowledgement) de que a controladora recebeu o anterior. Fibra ótica.

FICON (Vazão máxima de 100MB/S) Envia vários blocos assincronamente para a controladora sem esperar a resposta. Além disso, pode multiplexar em blocos consecutivos I/Os para diferentes devices. O meio de transmissão é a fibra ótica

Tem o dobro da vazão do canal ficon. Não precisa mudar o protocolo. O Z990 só tem FICON EXPRESS

OSA - trata-se de um canal mais uma controladora de teleprocessamento (principalmente para rede TCP/IP) no mesmo cartão. Há vários sub tipos: OSA-2 para redes: FDDI, Token Ring. OSA-Express para redes: Fast Ethernet, Gbit Ethernet, ATM 155

Capacidade de ativar ou desativar processadores, conforme necessidade da demanda (não tem como voltar atráz)

É quando um processo (task) em um MVS ou uma CPU lógica em LPAR não consegue usar mais CPU, mesmo tendo uma demanda e havendo CPU disponível

Particionado (data set) onde ficam os cartões sisyn, idcans, pop

Catalog Address Space - Um dos AS do sistema

Buffers do catálogo.

Possibilidade de se compartilhar o mesmo catálogo entre vários MVS's. Para resolver um problema de integridade é usado o Reserve, aliás transformado em GRS Enqueue. Para resolver o problema de coerência do buffer local (garantir que o que vai ser usado é o mais atualizado) , é usado um log no catálogo, em um registro VVR. Todas as deleções e adiçoes são descritas nestes registros. Toda vez que uma pesquisa for satisfeita no local buffer pool, o registro é lido no VVR, para verificar-se a sua atualidade. Todo hit no buffer pool, implica em uma operação de IO, muito mais rápida do que uma pesquisa de verdade, para saber se um data set está catalogado ou não.

Data set do MVS que contém informações de todos os outros data sets. Cada catálogo é dividido em dois pedaços: BCS e VVDS.

Capacity Backup Upgrade - Capacidade de ativar ou desativar processadores, na medida da necessidade

Channel command word: comandos ou instruções que compõe um programa de canal. Existe um bit que diz que o programa foi concluido.

CCW denominada Reserve que serializa o device inteiro durante um write não atômico executado no MVS que emitiu essa CCW. Um aspecto negativo é a granularidade da informa um Qname.Rname. Esse nome é usado para serializar o recurso entre tasks do mesmo MVS.

Content directory Entry

Canais especiais que conectam as Coupling Facilitys aos MVS´s em um Parallel Sysplex. Agora também pode-se ligar CF com CF

Coupling Facility Control Code - Sistema operacional que roda na PU ICF. Importante na implementação do DATA SHARING.

Veio para substituir o CFS e CFR.

Coupling Facility Receiver (não suporta MIF)

Coupling facility resource management. - É um Couple Data set. Contém os nomes das estruturas que podem ser alocadas na CF. Quem faz é o operador.

Coupling Facility Sender (conecta CF Links)

Bit da Storage Key - Change Bit (sétimo bit da storage key) é ligado pelo hardware (CPU+Canal) quando o conteúdo do Frame é alterado. Antes de uma página ser roubada, caso o Change Bit esteja ligado, o ASM salva (page-out) a página no Page data set)

Time de mudanças. Aplica APAR

O OSA inclui o Channel Driver - a conexão ao Subsistema de Canal - e o LAN Driver - os ports para conexão da rede local

Durante as fases do Jes Um arquivo de CHECKPOINT é mantido sempre atualizado com uma imagem de cada uma das Filas, além de informação necessária para reinício do JES em caso de queda. É obrigatoriamente duplexado (primário na coupling facility e o secundário em disco).

Channel Path ID - Identificação do canal

CI 2
Control Interval - entidade equivalente a um bloco físico que o VSAM utiliza para transferir dados entre memoria e disco e vice-versa. Tamanho: 4K

Customer Information Control System - É um produto da IBM que serve como monitor de transações. É ele que executa as transações e repassa para o banco de dados. Disponibiliza recursos

Elimina os AOR's que não são compatíveis.

CICSTS - CICS Transaction Server

CICS Vsam Recovery


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